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Knee Joint

This lecture explains the different aspects of knee joint along with the associated ligaments and muscles, along with the relations and associated structures.

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Outline of Lecture

Knee Joint

Largest synovial joint

Modified hinge joint

Compound joint-Bicondylar &  gliding / sellar joint

Shape Of Femoral & Tibial Condyle

MFC: longer, narrower & oval

LFC: Shorter, rounded

MTC: Oval with long anteroposterior axis

LTC: circular


Attached to the margins of articular surfaces & surrounds the sides & posterior aspect of joint

In front – absent

On each sides of patella- capsule is strengthened by expansions from tendons of VM & VL

Behind the joint – capsule is strengthend

Opening in the capsule behind the lateral tibial condyle

Extracapsular ligaments

Ligamentum patellae

Lateral collateral

Medial collateral

Oblique popliteal

Arcuate popliteal ligament

Tendon of popliteus intervenes b/w FCL & LM

MCL is firmly attached to MM

Intracapsular ligaments

Anterior cruciate

Posterior cruciate

Menisci (avascular except at the periphery)

Anterior meniscofemoral (Humphry)

Posterior meniscofemoral (Wrisberg)

Transverse ligament

Coronary ligaments


Cruciate ligaments

ACL prevents posterior displacement of femur on tibia or when the knee is flexed it prevents the tibia from being pulled anteriorly.

PCL – vice versa

Medial Meniscus


Broader behind than in front

Anterior horn

Posterior horn

Attachments-more fixed

Lateral Meniscus


Uniformly wide

Anterior horn

Posterior horn- Ant & post meniscofemoral lig of Humphry & Wrisbery

Separate from capsule-less fixed

Lateral Meniscus

Synovial membrane

Lines the capsule

Attached to the margins of articular surfaces & to peripheral edges of menisci

Semimembranosus bursa

Bursae around knee joint

Relations of Right knee joint

Nerve Supply of Knee Joint



Common peroneal


Knee movements

Locking of knee joint

Moving into extension from a flexed position:

 Articular surface of LFC stops and LFC completes its extension excursion 30 degrees short of full extension.

The surface for articulation still exposed on the MFC, as a result Medial rotation of femur accompanies final stages of extension

MFC accommodates the remainder of exposed articular surface

Passive medial rotation of femur secures the joint in 5 – 10 degrees of hyper extension

Promotes max. contact b/w articular surfaces of femoral & tibial condyles

Renders ligaments taut

Joint is maintained in the stable extended position.

Unlocking of Knee joint

Brought about by popliteus m that pulls the lateral condyle posteriorly laterally rotating the femur

Ligaments relax

Unlocking of knee joint

Locking of Knee joint

Flexion / extension – upper joint compartment

Rotation – lower joint compartment

Ankle joint
Between lower end of tibia, two malleoli and body of talus

Synovial hinge variety

Knee joint injuries

Runner’s syndrome


Abnormal q angle



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